The review mainly focuses on various facets such as common names, synonyms, traditional uses, botanical descriptions, pharmacological activities of seven species of Parmelia. [Study on the chemical constituents of two lichen plants from Meng Mountain]. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. It is generally called "Stone Flower," "Charila," "Pattharphool," or "Shilaaapushpa" in India. Parmelia belonging to Family Parmeliaceae is a foliose lichen with mutualism of one or two groups of fungi in Phylum ascomycota or basidiomycota and algae which might be green algae or blue green algae (cyanobacteria). It also has several unique phytoconstituents that could be in charge of different therapeutic activities but majority of them are still unexplored. It is characterized by a black norsticticetc acid, physodic acid and salazinic acid. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Parmelia belonging to Family Parmeliaceae is a foliose lichen with mutualism of one or two groups of fungi in Phylum ascomycota or basidiomycota and algae which might be green algae or blue green algae (cyanobacteria). 2019 Sep;165:112051. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.112051. González-Burgos E, Fernández-Moriano C, Gómez-Serranillos MP. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net. Methanol has a polarity index of 5.1 and was found to be capable of dissolving polar compounds. Corrections? Cladonia rangiferina (Reindeer moss) is the main food for reindeers (a kind of deer) in polar countries. It has also applied as indicator for biomonitoring, astringent, carminative, demulcent, bitter, resolvent, emollient, laxative, sporofic, sedative, diuretic and considered to be used in treating sores, bronchitis, excessive salivation, vomiting, tooth-ache, boils, inflammations. Other Lichens also known for their dyeing properties are: Parmelia caperata, or Stone Crottle, which contains a yellow dye, P. ceratophylla, or Dark Crottle, and P. parietina, the common wall Lichen, which gives a colour similar to that of the Lichen itself, yellowish brown. It has been utilized for traditional food and acts as a bioindicator for air pollution and radiation. The lichen has a greenish-gray to bluish-gray thallus that can turn brown in exposed locations. Updates? 2011 Mar 23;59(6):2299-307. doi: 10.1021/jf1049613. USA.gov. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. It shows antibacterial, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including haemolytic, anaesthetic, spasmolytic and antispasmodic and antitumour activities. Thallus foliose, green-grey or distinctly yellow-grey (but commonly appearing pure grey in digital photographs or with digital printing technology), smooth and somewhat glossy, with usually numerous peg-like isidia on the older lobe surfaces, lower surface black; apothecia frequent, conspicuous, to 1cm in diameter, with red-brown discs and pale, often undulate, crenulate margins. It is generally called "Stone Flower," "Charila," "Pattharphool," or "Shilaaapushpa" in India. Epub 2017 Apr 12. Botanical Name : Parmelia Perlata Family Name : Parmeliaceae Common Name : Stone Flower, Lichen Part Used : Dried Lichen Habitat : Mainly found in himachal pradesh and west bengal. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Parmelia sulcata is a common species throughout much of the world, found from temperate to cold regions of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!  |  Parmelia peforatum is medically recognized in Afghanistan. Parmelia, largest genus of foliose (leafy) lichens, which includes among its members the species commonly known as crottle and skull lichen. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/Parmelia. Black Friday Sale! 1980 Jan;6(1):64-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.1980.tb03907.x. Lichen, can be generally found growing on walls, old trees and spread largely across India especially in mountain area. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. NIH It typically grows on rock, although it is sometimes found on bark or wood. Bioindicator; Foliose Lichen; Parmelia sp. 2017;2017:2079697. doi: 10.1155/2017/2079697. It is a source of edible organisms for people residing in certain areas of Nepal and it is also cultivated in hill sides of Kashmir. Ash of the lichen, mixed with mustard or linseed oil, is applied to the affected area. Lichen Collection is accepted by the State Forest Department Photo: Dr N. Anil Kumar & team CABC, Wyanad Lichens as Food flavoring agents Species mixture of Parmelia, Heterodermia, Pyxine and Physcia are extensively used to increase the flavor of the Indian spicy dish 'Briyani' from Kasmir to Kanyakumari. Species of Parmelia (known as rathapu or ‘rock flower’ in Telgu) are used as curry powder in India. Product offered : Bark, Lichen Uses : Stone flower is used as food and medicine.It contains no fat, carbohydrates and protein of 1-5% are present. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Parmelia saxatilis is used to make dyes with deep red-brown and rusty-orange colors. Parmelia sancti-angeli is used in Central India to treat Tinea disease. Epub 2019 Jun 21. Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances. Crottle, the largest foliose lichen, resembles crumpled leather and sometimes grows 90 to 120 centimetres in diameter. Ecology. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Omissions? Keywords: It is characterized by a black underside. In recent years the genus Parmelia has been divided into a number of smaller genera according to thallus morphology. It has been found that lichen contains a lot of distinctive chemical compounds such as evernic acid, Lecanoric acid, lobaric acid. is partly due to the use of this dye. Oxid Med Cell Longev. According to folk superstition, it was believed to be an effective treatment for epilepsy if found growing on an old skull, especially that of an executed criminal. Potential of Lichen Compounds as Antidiabetic Agents with Antioxidative Properties: A Review. Phytochemistry. NLM Parmelia belonging to Family Parmeliaceae is a foliose lichen with mutualism of one or two groups of fungi in Phylum ascomycota or basidiomycota and algae which might be green algae or blue green algae (cyanobacteria). The Lichen (Parmelia perlata) sample was extracted by means of cold extraction method using methanol. Therefore methanol was highly preferred and the solvent was also reported to have been used by other authors for their extraction purposes (Hafizur Rahman et al., 2014). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov.

parmelia lichen uses

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